This study intends (1) to determine the amount of variance in pharmaceutical sales representatives’ overall job satisfaction explained by motivator and hygiene factors and (2) to explore whether demographic subgroups are statistically different regarding overall job satisfaction. Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test and stepwise multiple regression are used for the purpose of statistical analyses. “Work itself” is reported to be the most motivating dimension of the job whilst “operating procedures” is reported to be the least motivating dimension of the job for frontline salesforce in pharmaceutical companies.
Study results show that motivator and hygiene factors have moderate to substantial
relationship with overall job satisfaction. Five distinct job factors such as “growth”,
“coworkers”, “promotion opportunities”, “rewards and recognition” and “job security” are
found to be the significant predictors contributing 71 per cent variability in sales representatives’ overall job satisfaction. Study concludes that demographic variables do not contribute significant variations in sales representatives’ overall level of job satisfaction.
Motivator factors, Hygiene factors, Overall job satisfaction.
Thousands of the published research articles and dissertations report that job satisfaction is related to performance, productivity, organizational commitment, retention and turnover of the employees. Job satisfaction is regarded as a vital factor in almost all the industries and its need is gaining value in pharmaceutical industry of Pakistan as well due to intensified competition, changes in organizational objectives and socio-economic conditions.
The quittal of the salespersons due to job dissatisfaction not only incurs huge cost in hiring and retraining them but creates difficulties for the management also to rebuilding sales team, regaining market share snatched by the competitors and reestablishing relationship with the customers. So, the improvement in job satisfaction of the frontline soldiers is a matter of great concern for the management of pharmaceutical companies for sustainable competitive advantage, increased market share and building long lasting relationships with the key customers.
Job satisfaction is an attitude which in formed when an employee takes into account
his feelings, behaviours and beliefs of the job. Locke (1976) has defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable emotional state which results from the appraisal of one’s job experiences. Porter, Lawler and Hackman (1975) have noted that the feeling of job satisfaction is realized by the difference between the amount of valued outcome that an employee obtains and the amount of outcome he feels he should receive. The biggest prelude to the study regarding job satisfaction was Hawthorne studies. In these sudies (1924-1933) the researchers attempted to expore the impact of illumination on the productivity of the workers. The studies concluded that the novel changes in work conditions temporarily improves the productivity (called Hawthorne Effect). The findings of the study were later challenged on the ground that the enhancement of the productivity was not resulted from the new conditions but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding paved the way for researchers to investigate the factors, other than pay, for determining job satisfaction. Scientific management by Frederick Winslow Taylor also had a great impact on the study of job satisfaction. This significantly contributed to substantial change in philosophies of industrial production. Initially, the principles of scientific management warranted increased productivity but later on workers felt dissatisfaction leaving the researchers to address the new questions regarding job satisfaction.
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